1. “Although there is no complete list of adequacy criteria for moral judgments, moral judgments have certain requirements that should be followed”.

Explain the three requirements for moral judgments.

There are different requirements for moral judgments that are accountable, however here we will be discussing about only three requirements which are necessary of can be considered for the moral judgments. These are the moral judgment should be logical, factual and based on defensible principles. Before making a moral judgment, these three requirements should be considered as a basic principle. It does not mean that these are the mandatory requirements, there can be others as well that can be totally different from it.

Talking about the moral judgment to be logical is that, it should not be based on the sentiments or personal emotions based on our relations with someone or some sympathy because of biasness. The moral judgment based on logical means that it should be neutral and based on some other important things that are, it should follow a standard that shows the logic relation, it also should be following a policy that shows the neutral behavior and in the last, it should be conclusive on the basis of the standards and the policies being following in making the moral judgment. It can be done by considering the evidences and the reasons that seems logical in relevance with each other. There should be no assumption that should lead to the moral judgment. It should purely follow the evidences and reasons. In other words it can be said that the moral judgment should be done in a way as to check the tests of the students without knowing their names written on them, but being totally unbiased in its approach and leading towards the fair judgment. The same rule should be applied to the moral judgment, however it is even more difficult while making a moral judgment while knowing the person that can also influence and arouse some sentiments or emotions causing your decision to be doubtful because of your personal attachment or emotions.

Another requirement for the appropriate moral judgment is that it should be factual, meaning that it should be based on facts only. While considering a judgment, it must be ensured that all the relevant information and data was gathered first, then on the basis of the information and data, the relevant information should be extracted and the judgment should be done on that extracted information. It is not right to make a judgment without going through all the information or the relevant evidence related to that situation or scenario. On the other hand it is also to ensure that all the relevant information and data is also correct and there is no doubt in it. Till we have come to know that the moral judgment should be logical and factual.

The third requirement for the moral judgment is that it should be based on a defensible principle. It means that the principle that is being used for the moral judgment should stand alone in order to prove itself that the decision was taken being totally unbiased and without any external consideration. The defensible principle can be defined as the one that provides the maximum clarity, information and rational thinking about beliefs.  The moral judgments taken on these principle can be considered to be without any doubt because the principle can also stand alone and work as a standard for making a moral judgment.

  1. “Before evaluating utilitarianism, one should understand some points that might lead to confusion and misapplication”. Explain and comments on three points only.

There are total six points that should be understood in order to evaluate utilitarianism, however here will be only considering three points. The first point is about bringing the happiness to the actions and prioritize the actions in order of their ratio of happiness. It means that we should always go for those actions that will bring more happiness than unhappiness. It also specifies that not only the happiness should be considered while taking actions, while the unhappiness should be noted and considered as well. It can be understood with the help of an example. For example, you one action will bring about 10 blocks of happiness and 4 block of unhappiness, in this case you should perform this action. However, if you other action that brings the same 10 blocks of happiness and 7 blocks of unhappiness, then you should consider the first option that brings more number of block of happiness. Moreover if there is a case which brings the no happiness but unhappiness, then the actions that bring less blocks of happiness should be taken.

The second point about evaluating utilitarianism is that actions will be affecting the people to the different degrees. It means that an action has different impacts on different people with different degrees. It can be said that you are speaking loud while reading, then it might be good for two people in the room, while it will be bringing discomfort to other two people in the room, while the third person in the room is not concerned about your reading. In this case there will be no voting in order to find out who is comfortable with your loud reading and then the more voters will win, however it is all about performing the actions that will bring more units of happiness than looking for who is in your favor. It is not something that should be done or considered as a power game with influence on others. It is about bringing happiness.

The third point in order to evaluate utilitarianism is that always look for the action that bring happiness regardless of the moral values. It is clear that the utilitarianism is evaluated on the basis of the results of the actions. There are times that the decisions should be taken on the moral values. While it is different in case of utilitarianism. Let us consider an example, that when you come to know that if you keep your promise then it will bring unhappiness, then it is better or recommended to break the promise as it will bring happiness. So it is clear that the utilitarianism prefers that the actions that bring more units of happiness and lesser units of unhappiness should be performed regardless of the moral values.

  1. Explain the differences between the two approaches: Utilitarian and Libertarian?

Consequentialism can be other name given to utilitarian, because it basically depends on the consequences of the actions. It means that the effect of the actions are determined by the consequences. And an action is considered to be the good one if it has the maximum benefit or happiness factors for more people. Moreover it talks about the welfare of the society not only about the individual. It talks about the whole community and society rather than talking about the welfare and benefit of a single person. It can be stated as a land that belongs to a community, now the decision should be taken by the people that shows the maximum profitability and benefit for them. The community will be taking decision that what should be done on the land by considering the maximum profit or benefit for the community. The individuals do not have the freedom to do what they want to do on their land. It is in fact pointing towards the welfare of the people as collective.

While on the other hand, libertarian is totally different from utilitarian approach as it focus on the liberty of the individual and its right to enjoy its freedom till it does not disturb the life of someone else. It can be considered by the same example of a land, everyone who is owner of that land has the right to do what he wants to do in his part of land but he should not affect or cause any harm to other’s lands. It is said that the property rights are the natural right of every human being.