1 Introduction – Database Security Models

As the computers have become omnipresent and their excessive use it showed new directions for the development of number of different applications. Moreover, other devices like mobile phones are mostly carried while on travel or in the office rather than carrying a laptop. This replacement of mobile devices let the development of context aware application (Harter et.al ). Wood has discussed the context aware application supports the fact that application can sense and then act accordingly to the environment the device or computer is in (2008). the devices or the computer know about the environment they are in, and based on some rules they are able to act accordingly as the devices or computers are programmed (Covington et.al 2000). This brings new comfort to the lives of human beings. The context in the situation of the environment is at that specific time when a digital device will sense and respond to it.

A context aware application first of all gets information about the context through the sensors attached to the hardware, after that it understands the context. After understanding its current context, it matches it with the one stored in database of the application. After matching, the application responds that suits best relative to the context (Riboni and Bettini, 2012 ). The security of database in context aware application is very necessary for its proper functioning. There is need to define a database security model for context aware application so that is in intact with unauthorized persons.

2 Issues related to research

The issue in this regard is that, whenever, the context for an application is changed, it lets the database change as well. Hu and Waever discussed in a research paper that if we talk about a mobile device, the location of the mobile phone is being detected using GPS, if a person goes underground then his location will not be identified any more by context aware application, then the mobile device will be using its own inner system and will cause a change in database.

The context for an application does not remain same all the time. The change in context for an application brings a change in the database (Covington tl.al 2000). The reason behind this fact is that, the context of the application needs the location of the device to be identified all the time. The location of a system determines the operating of context aware application. As the user leaves the application operating area, it may not be functioning any more.

Context aware application needs to have some data in its database, to react accordingly after understanding the context in real life. Once the application gets context from the real life, after understanding it, it reads from the database, matches the most appropriate one to the environmental context (McFadden and Henricksen). When the computer or device finds a perfect match stored in database to context of real environment, and then it acts according to the instructions recorded in database. The actions that are required to be performed by the application are stored in database as well so that the application could make decisions and act quickly.

However, this new era of application needs to be secure as well to stop unauthorized persons from making any changes in database that can affect the functioning of the application. There is needed to make context aware applications less intrusive (Pernul). However a lot of work has been done in making these applications less intrusive. The reason behind making these applications more secure and away from the access of unauthorized persons is that it is designed specifically for some persons. These applications are programmed according to individuals’ requirements and need not to be changed without authentication.

3 Specific research questions

There is specifically a purpose to carry out this research. There is not only one reason for conducting this research. Here are some questions that gave birth to research on this topic.

  1. How does the context aware applications work with integrations to database?
  2. What are security threats to database in a context aware application?
  3. Is there a specific database security model for context aware application?
  4. Does the database of context aware application changes when the context is changed?
  5. If the database is changed with change of context, then how does it respond with new database?
  6. What is the importance of location of a source in context aware application?
  7. If the location of source is changed, does the operating of context aware application changes?

4 Methodology

In this research we need to carry out archival methods. While working with archival method means that we will first look for literature from different text books, journals and research papers. As there are different security models for database and more specifically we need to know the database security model for context aware applications (Wong). However, these types of applications are bit different from other normal applications which are not context aware, so there is need to look deeper into it.

For more specific knowledge there is need for qualitative research. The qualitative research may take much time as it includes consulting extensive journals and articles on context aware applications and threat to their security (Pernul).  While looking for all the threats to database security in context aware applications, it will help in defining a security model for them. As the database will always change its context is changed as well.

Not only qualitative research will be enough but we need to look more into details about the working of context aware applications. After extensive qualitative research and reading we need to develop an application that will be context aware and linked to database. We will figure out the threats to its database security and define a database security model for that specific application for its proper functioning.

5 Expected outcomes of the project

This research is carried out for knowing the database security models for applications that are context aware. After the completion of this research we will come to know about the proper functioning of how the context aware applications work. We will be able to find out the relationship between database and context aware applications (Verbert 2012). Moreover, it will help us in finding how database helps context aware application in responding according to the context. The context does not remain same all the time for anyone. As the context changes, obviously the response of the application will change as well. This research will tell use either there is any change in database with effect to context or not, If there is change in database in accordance to context then how the database changes and helps the application to response with new context.

6 Literature Review

With the more availability of computers and other gadgets all around us has created a new dimension for the development of applications that will help in making human life easier than ever expected. These  days most of the applications are being developed that will respond by themselves by judging the context they are in. these application do not need to be configured all the time, but will understand the context and will respond to it. However this is not an easy task to be performed. Not much work has been done on this topic about the database model for context aware applications. It is hard to find specific data about this topic. This will take more time for searching out the core knowledge about these applications and their interaction with database for proper functionality. However, it is not something that is impossible. The recent literature available for both the database models and context aware application can be used for further elaboration of the research question. As there is not specific literature to it, it will help many other people in understanding the threats to context aware applications and may open new ways for the developments of new security models for database in these applications. As this new era of application is evolving, this research will surely add more to the extensive development of applications.

7 References

Hu Junzhe,  and Weaver, Alfred C.  A Dynamic, Context-Aware Security Infrastructure

for Distributed Healthcare Applications. Retrieved June 30, 2012, from http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~acw/security/doc/Publications/A%20Dynamic,%20Context-Aware%20Security%20Infrastructure%20for%20Distri~1.pdf

Dey, Anind K. and Abowd , Gregory D. A Conceptual Framework and a Toolkit for Supporting the

Rapid Prototyping of Context-Aware Applications. Retrieved June 30, 2012, from

http://www.cc.gatech.edu/fce/contexttoolkit/pubs/HCIJ16.pdf

Cohen , Norman H., James, Paul Castro, Maria Ebling, Barry Leiba, Archan Misra, and Wolfgang Segmuller (2004). Building Context-Aware Applications with Context Weaver. Retrieved June 30, 2012, from

http://www.research.ibm.com/people/n/ncohen/RC23388.pdf

Konrad Wrona and Laurent Gomez. Context-aware security and secure context-awareness in ubiquitous computing environment. Retrieved June 30, 2012 from

http://proceedings2005.imcsit.org/docs/75.pdf

Schilit, Bill N., Norman Adams, and Roy Want (2007). Context-Aware Computing Application. Retrieved June 30, 2012, from

http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~jasonh/courses/ubicomp-sp2007/papers/12-wmc-94-schilit.pdf

Bradley Rhodes. Context-Aware Computing. Retrieved June 30, 2012, from

http://www.media.mit.edu/wearables/lizzy/context.html

Wood, A (2008).  Context-aware wireless sensor networks for assisted living and residential monitoring. Retrieved June 30, 2012, from

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4579768&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F65%2F4579761%2F04579768.pdf%3Farnumber%3D4579768

Verbert, K.  Context-Aware Recommender Systems for Learning: A Survey and Future Challenges. Retrieved June 30, 2012, from

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6189308&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6189308

Riboni, D. and Bettini, C. (2012). Private context-aware recommendation of points of interest: An initial investigation. Retrieved June 30, 2012 from

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6197582&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6197582

Sharef, Nurfadhlina Mohd and Madzin, Hizmawati (2012). IMS: An improved medical retrieval model via medical-context aware query expansion and comprehensive ranking. Retrieved June 29, 2012 from

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6205004&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F6200786%2F6204970%2F06205004.pdf%3Farnumber%3D6205004